A group of successive pictures within a coded video stream. Each coded video stream consists of successive GOPs. From the pictures contained in it, the visible framesare generated. The GOP is composed of I-frames, which are the least compressible but don't require other video frames to decode; P-frames, which use data from previous frames to decompress and are more compressible than I-framkes; and B-frames, which can use both previous and forward frames for data reference to get the highest amount of data compression.
Group of Pictures. The ordering of intra- (I-frames or complete frames) and inter-frames (B-frames or frames that contain only the changes from one frame to the next) in a compressed video file. For example, MPEG-2 media is separated into groups of pictures no longer than 18 frames for NTSC or 15 for PAL. The length of the group determines how frequently an I-frame (complete frame) will be shown.

Audio and video glossary. 2014.

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